Thursday, January 31, 2013

The Homes of the Pioneers by Charlene Raddon

Please welcome Charlene Raddon, guest blogger, to The Roses of Prose.

I hope you find this blog informative and useful. Please leave a comment and your contact information for a chance to win my soon-to-be released e-book, TO HAVE AND TO HOLD, in which the heroine lives in a dugout she dug herself with a broken shovel after her home was washed away in a flash flood. January 24 is the release date for this book.

Dugout, 1850-1920 – Dugout dwellings were, of course partially subterranean, dug either into level ground-up to approximately six feet deep-or, more commonly, into a hillside, preferably south facing, to capture sun in the winter. Floor dimensions of 12’x12’ were common. A wall of log, earth, stone, or sometimes brick was sometimes built above ground around the perimeter, high enough to provide adequate head room. The roof might be flat, sloped, or have a shallow, pitched gable. The roof consisted of flat boards or heavy wood poles spaced evenly as rafters. Willows or other saplings were placed between poles and covered with straw or bundles of brush. A thick layer of dirt made the final layer. Such a roof did little good in heavy rain and often caved in, especially if livestock was allowed to roam freely on top of the roof. 

Single-Cell, 1847-1910—A single-cell house is a single square or rectangle unit not subdivided into rooms. It may be one, one and a half, or two stories tall, and is sometimes called the “square cabin” or “hall house,” an English form found in all sections of the United States.

Double-Cell, 1847-90 — The double-cell house has two square or roughly square units arranged axially, one, one and a half, or two stories tall, usually with a façade having two front doors and either two or four symmetrical windows. Chimneys were at the gable ends or in the center of the house. 

Hall-Parlor, 1847-1910 —The hall-parlor house consists of a single square room (the hall) with a smaller room serving as the best room (parlor) attached to the side. Though one room deep, there may be one, one and a half, or two floors. The internal plan is always asymmetrical, but a characteristic three-or five-bay symmetrical façade masks the imbalance. Chimneys stood either internally or at the gable ends. 

Central Passage, 1847-1900—A central-passage house is a modification of the hall-parlor type, with a passage or hallway (usually containing a staircase) between two square or roughly square rooms. One, one-and-a-half, and two-story examples of the house have been recorded, and both three-and five-bay forms are common (bays are window or door openings). From the outside, the placement of internal chimneys flanking the central hall indentifies it as this type of house. 

Pair House, 1853-90— The pair house has a distinctive three-room-wide floor plan. It differs from the central-passage type by the central room being more than a passageway. Usually it is either the kitchen or the living room. This one also was built with one, one and a half and two stories, with either gable-end or internal chimneys. The paired internal chimneys (more widely spaced than central-passage chimneys) indentify it as a pair house. Usually has three or five bays. 

Double Pile, 1847-80— The double-pile house was two rooms deep, a regional modification of the Georgian detached house (which has two rooms on either side of a long central passage.) Other double-pile forms extend the hall parlor, pair house, and double-cell types one unit to the rear.

Side Passage/Entry Hall, 1847-1920— This house has a square or rectangular plan with an entrance passage on one side of the main floor, giving the house a distinctive asymmetrical appearance. The side-passage house is one and a half or two stories and was used in styles ranging from the Greek Revival to the Prairie School. The side-passage form originated as an 18th-century variant of the Georgian detached house—two rooms on either side of a central passage.

Saltbox, 1847-70— The saltbox is defined mainly by its roof shape rather than its plan. This house has a two-story front section and a one-story extension, or outshut, to the rear. The entire house is covered by a long sloping roof, with a continuous, unbroken roofline, giving it the shape of an old-fashioned salt storage box.

Temple Form, 1847-75—The temple-form house has its entrance in the narrower side of the house, usually under the gable end of the roof. These houses may multiple storied, and may use different floor plans, including the double-cell and side-passage. There may be wings on one or both sides. By 1850, several new types, such as the cross-wing and cruciform, were becoming important new forms.

Cross Wing, 1880-1910— The cross-wing house consists of two wings placed at right angles so the floor plan resembles a “T” or an “L.” The stairway is often situated in the side wing. Usually one and a half stories tall, although some are two stories. Smaller one-story examples were often called simply “T-cottages.

Shotgun House, 1875-1910— The shotgun house is narrow, one story tall, one room wide, and two or more rooms deep.  The narrow gable end faces the street and typically contains a single entryway and window.  Each room is placed behind the other in single file, with no hallway.  The roof ridge is perpendicular to the street. 

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Barbara Edwards said...

I've heard of several these types and learned some new types. since its so important to give good descriptions this is very helpful.

Jannine Gallant said...

I remember laughing when I read On the Banks of Plum Creek as a girl, when the cow stuck it's foot through the roof. I always wondered what a salt box house looked like. Now I know. Thanks for the great blog.

Alison Henderson said...

Hi Charlene! It's so great to have you visit us at The Roses of Prose. This is such a fascinating subject. I always try to imagine myself living this way (and fail - LOL).

Margo Hoornstra said...

You provided a lot of interesting information. Like Alison, I try to imagine what it was like to live in those times. Love your cover, Charlene. Best of luck with your book.